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Monday, 14 October 2013

Abd ur Rehman Awal

In Mecca there were two main tribes named Bnoo Quraish and Bnoo Ummaya when Hazrat Mohammad (saw) was born.Banoo Quraish has responsibility to look after pilgrimages who came to perform Hajj while Bnoo Ummaya were dominating all tribes politically.They were skilled in  all warfares.
  When Holy prophet (saw)preached Islam they didn't accept it but when Mecca started thronging with footsteps of Muslims majority of them embraced Islam.After  martyrdom of Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Amir Maawia(belonged to Bnoo Ammya)  took over the rule.After his death and on  his instruction Imam Hussain were 1st compelled and then killed with his family and his followers in a war where Imam followers were only 72 while Ummwi army was in thousands.
 Bnoo Abbas(hazrat Ali followers) continued under ground movement against Ummwi's  and when realized that their movement is much ripen they exposed themselves in all cities of Muslim territory.Abbasi's men killed all members of Ummwi family. Only one prince survived as he was out of palace.Getting the news of his family's assassination he rushed to the river and jumped in to the water. Abbasi 's men also jumped into the water to capture him but he was very good swimmer so crossing the river he reached near Spain where his maternal grand father was ruler of a small state.He  was warmly welcomed by his maternal grand father.He gave Abd ur Rehman 300 warriors, a small part of his own state and advised  him to increase his army and his territory too.Abd ur Rehman was a consistent and courageous warrior. In a few years he captured whole Spain and founded a strong  Govt here.He did many things for welfare of his people. Rich and poor,master and servants were equal in the eyes of Law and justice.
      He founded a Cordoba University where best teachers of his time taught and students all over the world came to study Sciences,Art ,Architecture etc. Mosque of Cordoba is another masterpiece of his reign.This mosque was converted into cathedral after Christian rule but its grandeur and Muslim look is still preserved. In spite of passing centuries its stones  have not cracked at all and its color is fresh as ever.Verses of Qur'an are carved with pure gold and gems.Its great dome is standing on numerous  delicate and thin pillars.When Europeans took over Spain they thought that  these tiny pillars will not be able to bear the heavy dome for a long time so they erected a huge pillar in the center of dome.Soon the dome began to crack.When experts were consulted they told that these tiny pillars were erected on geometrical balance rules and this huge pillar was disturbing that balance. Al hamra Palace is also a architectural gift of Abd ur Rehman time. Marble of this palace has a specific quality.As the day descends it changes its color and  converts itself from white to red completely. His predecessor also kept his name alive with good governance but as weakness  like laziness and crave for lavish life  crept in to their life their government grew weak.European took over Spain and Arab who have flourished in Spain so much by mingling with Spanish people were confined too their homes.Many were killed of minor reasons.Speaking Arabic language and wearing Arabic dress was banned.Muslims were called Moors (mean uncivilized)Any thing related to Islamic culture was discouraged strictly but Europeans  could not reject those books that had guidance for Europe to the new horizons of knowledge, Art and culture. They could not demolish those buildings which were  a source of income and source of comfort for them. Even today, we can recognize a Spanish girl or a Spanish boy among a crowd because of their Arabic complexion and features.When Allama Iqbal visited Spain he also admired Arabic Architect and Arabic features and style of life of Spanish people.He also admired devotion and dedication of Muslims of that time which enable them to built such immortal monuments and an environment of their own culture and creed.